“化妆品”对每个人都不陌生，即使有些人不使用它们。 他们肯定听说过他们。 化妆品是在数千年前发明的。 当化妆品被引入时，它们被认为是女性使用的唯一东西。 那时候，只有少数几种化妆品存在。 有人认为化妆品受限于香水，化妆品等某些种类。 其实，化妆品有很多种形式。 除了香水和化妆品，它们包括洗发水，肥皂，乳液和其他。 化妆品被用来护理和清洁人们的身体，维持人们的健康状况并增强人们的美丽（Kumar et al。，2006）。 例如，防晒的目标是防止紫外线并降低皮肤癌的风险。 。
在过去，男士用化妆品来打扮会被视为女性化。 当然，人们没有听说男士的化妆品广告。 如今，现实已经逐渐改变。 化妆品还没有成为女性的专利。 男士和小孩加入使用化妆品的小组。 这个数字越来越多。 雅诗兰黛作为第一批女性化妆品公司试图进入1964的男性化妆品市场。 经过1year试用后，它推出了Aramis和全系列男士皮肤。 （Alpern）在化妆品市场上，有数以千计的男士和儿童化妆品可供选择。 在过去的十年里，化妆品公司推出了一些适合男性和女性的产品。 随着男性顾客增加，公司开始为男性推出新的产品系列。 独家香水和清洁泡沫是为男士设计的。 为了瞄准这些新兴的潜在客户，许多化妆品公司通过电视，美容杂志等为广告投入了大量资金。 广告的目的是传达化妆品不是少女产品的想法。 一些大型化妆品公司聘请着名演员或运动员通过正面图像宣传产品。 它让男人相信使用化妆品是非常正常的。 （Souiden和Diagne，2009）
化妆品行业是全球最具竞争力的行业之一，因为市场上存在超过300化妆品品牌。 这些公司大多利用大量的研发资源每年推出新产品，以满足不断变化的客户需求和需求。 创新是化妆品公司生存和成功的基础。 （Kumar et al。，2006）为了在激烈的竞争中保持高度，化妆品公司应该为顾客创造价值。
中国是世界人口最多的国家，占世界人口的五分之一。 中国的人口增长率在0.629中为2008％，目前的平均预期寿命为73.18。 男性拥有51.8占总人口的百分比，而女性拥有48.2％。 （Nancy E，2008）中国人更关注美丽可以追溯到古代。 它已经深深扎根于中国文化。 在中国的诗歌和艺术中，美丽一直是歌颂的（Newham，2006）
在改革开放政策实施之前，中国经济状况并不理想。 中国人的大部分收入都花在食物，交通和房屋上。 他们没有额外的钱购买化妆品。 通过适当的经济政策，中国政府正在实施经济繁荣，中国和人民的生活水平日益提高。 人们有更多的处置收入花在美容上。 越来越多的人吸收来自不同来源的美容信息。 其中一些成为'美容专业'。 他们认为把钱花在美丽上是一项宝贵的投资。 有吸引力的外表和形象将有助于他们在职业和社交生活中获得好处，因为每个人都喜欢美丽。 （全球观察：中国）
为了加入世界贸易组织（WTO），中国政府降低了进口关税。 由于进口关税降低，化妆品的进口量从160％增加到1996。 （Li，2001）自从2003中国加入WTO以后，它为外国化妆品公司进入中国市场提供了一个很好的机会。 对于这些公司来说，中国是人口最多的新兴市场。 在欧洲这样的饱和市场中，化妆品公司很难提高销售额。 许多外国公司通过先进技术与产品和巨额资本与国内制造商合资企业，并在中国广东省和上海等沿海地区建立工厂。 二十大化妆品品牌纷纷涌入中国化妆品市场。 （亚洲咨询）另一方面，关于国内制造商，他们也获益。 例如，先进技术有助于有效降低生产成本并提高产品质量。
中国经济的强劲增长让全世界的人们感到震惊，但中国的化妆品市场增长速度高于中国经济。 根据中国国家香精香料行业协会的统计，中国化妆品的销售额在16.6年增加了4.2％至2001十亿美元。 在2004年，销售额跃升至85十亿元人民币。 中国被认为是亚洲第二大化妆品市场，在全球排名第XXUMX。 8早期的化妆品消费是1yuan，但1980年度的消费大幅增加到25元。 即使在上海，北京等大型知名城市，化妆品的年均开支也在2000-150元（LI＆FUNG研究中心，180）。化妆品市场在亚洲的发展情况比较，化妆品市场的增长速度明显快于其他国家和地区。 （图2005）。 即使在世界各地，这种增长率也是非常棒的。 因此，“中国市场化妆品公司是永不放弃的。 中国是我们海外业务运营最重要的国家之一， 它是一个巨大的市场，受到1乘以约1.3乘以日本人口的支持。“（Shiseido董事Tadakatsu Saito）
国家税务总局出台的消费税对国内化妆品企业的发展有利。 11类别的商品如香烟，汽车都需要消费。 消费税的目的是缩小收入。 目前中国差距的扩大已成为严重的社会问题。 高端化妆品需缴纳30％消费税，因为基本化妆品需缴纳0％。 （Fang，2005）实际上，大多数外国品牌都被认为是奢侈品。 对于国内的化妆品公司，他们可以为客户提供有竞争力的价格 在收入较低的地区，它可能比国外品牌更具吸引力。
中国化妆品市场的竞争非常激烈，因为超过300品牌的存在。 不过，国内外品牌的目标市场可能会有所不同。 例如，处置收入水平较高的大城市的客户偏好来自国外的知名品牌。 然而，在大都市区之外，许多客户正在购买由当地公司生产的产品。 在1980s中，中国化妆品市场上或多或少有40化妆品品牌。 这些品牌只提供有限的产品，如洗发水，口红。 少数人使用香水等化妆品。 然而，目前市场上可以找到超过300品牌在类型方面，护肤产品占化妆品总产量的35％，护发产品占28％，化妆产品的香水分别为29％和28％ （图2）
在之前的1990s中，中国化妆品法规非常不完善，导致中国化妆品市场混乱。 许多小型化妆品企业突袭了市场的健康发展（Li et al。，2004）。 “化妆品卫生监督条例”是卫生部于11月13，1989颁布并于1月份生效的化妆品基本法律法规1，1990。 其中包括化妆品总体规定，化妆品生产卫生监督，化妆品分销卫生监督，化妆品卫生监督管理机构及其职责，处罚和补充规定。 例如，化妆品成分必须遵守化妆品卫生监督条例设定的标准。 此外，关于标签，法规规定了条款。 在化妆品标签上，应明确说明产品名称，生产者名称和生产者卫生许可证编号。 过去存在的大量虚假广告夸大了产品对误导消费者的有效性。 法规禁止在广告中使用虚假和误导性陈述（“化妆品卫生监督条例”）另一方面，有关部门主动发布虚假广告。 随着化妆品的迅速发展，法规逐渐完善。 中国化妆品市场标准化，符合国际惯例。 完整的法规保证良性发展化妆品市场 越来越多的化妆品生产企业有意识地遵守企业社会责任规定。
随着中国化妆品市场的快速发展，化妆品的销售渠道也呈现多元化。 不同类型的现代零售分销渠道涌入市场。 过去，中国客户通过超市和大卖场购买化妆品。 他们购买的大多数化妆品都是“基础”化妆品，如肥皂，洗发水。 在那个时候，由于高关税，稀缺的优质化妆品品牌进入市场。 考虑到美容零售中国2005，80通过大型超市和超市完成了化妆品和化妆品销售的百分比。 除了超市和大卖场之外，百货公司是另一个在中国客户中非常流行的主要渠道。 （Pitman，2005）。 在中国，化妆品公司在百货公司的一楼和二楼开设专柜。 这些柜台形成美容区域，方便客户使用。 并非每个化妆品品牌都能够拥有专业柜台。 前提是品牌应该有广泛的产品和独特的品牌和形象。 因此，顾客认为百货公司出售的化妆品质量可靠，可以安全使用。 目前，市场上存在药店连锁店，专卖店专业店等多种渠道。 专业商店提供专业服务和特定化妆品品牌的全系列产品。 实际上，中国的专卖店由DHC等原装化妆品直销公司所有。 由于直销业务模式一般是中国政府禁止的，除非中国政府给予许可。 雅芳作为领先的直销化妆品公司在2008年成功获得直销许可证。 这也是该公司在中国取得首个直销牌照的公司。 对于大多数公司而言，专卖店是他们调整商业模式的有效途径（李和丰研究中心，2005）
中国化妆品行业在过去的二十年中迅速发展。 化妆品成为中国消费者的第五大消费产品。 这个市场仍然有很大的发展空间，并且已经远远饱和。 主要有两个原因。 一方面，中国拥有1.3十亿人口，因此拥有庞大的潜在客户。 中国政府致力于发展中国中西部地区，以平衡东西部之间的经济差距。 西部大开发计划正在进行中。 未来西部地区的购买力将会增强。 另一方面，目前中国消费者对化妆品的人均年消费额仍远低于发达国家。 Capita在丹麦和瑞典化妆品方面的年度支出已达到€171（Global Insight，2007）中国经济仍在蓬勃发展，人们的生活水平将日益提高。 顾客会花更多钱在化妆品上。 对于化妆品公司来说，中国有望成为一个拥有巨大商机的市场。 （LI＆Fung研究中心，2005）
上海是世界上增长最快的经济体。 上海人口约为16万人，财政收入超过6十亿人民币，人均GDP为人民币37,382，人均年薪约为21,781在财政年度2001。 （赵，2005）。 上海是中国最大的商业城市， 在过去的13年间，GDP持续增长。 在2004年，GDP增长率达到了13.6％（吴和德龙，2006）。 仅上海就占了化妆品目标市场的很大比例。 东部沿海地区对整个中国的化妆品零售业至关重要。 目前，上海，北京，江苏，广东，浙江，山东的化妆品零售总额占全国化妆品零售总额的比例达到55％。 其中，上海占12％的排名第一，其次是北京，江苏。 （香港贸发局中国化妆品市场报告，2008）。 上海只是一个城市，而不是一个全省。 其化妆品销售仍高于全省。 这证明上海人使用的化妆品非常受欢迎。
Furthermore, Shanghai is viewed as ‘fashion capital’ in China. In Asia, its status has gradually been enhanced. It plays a key role on leading fashion in Asia. Many people believe Shanghai is ‘The Paris of the East’. Everything managing people’s appearance and figure are considered as fashion process. Hence, expect for apparel, cosmetic, jewelry and others are parts of fashion people pursue. Cosmetic are used to enhance people’s beauty, exhibit their personality and aesthetic preference. (Guthrie et al., 2008). Customers from other cities and province may imitate how Shanghai customers make up, which facial cream brands they use.
Another main reason of choosing Shanghai is that mostly cosmetic brands no matter international brands or domestic brands can be found in Shanghai cosmetic market. According to the Shanghai Commercial Information Center, Shanghai is not only a place of using cosmetics, but also a major place producing cosmetics. Except for domestic manufacturers, many foreign cosmetic companies set up plants in Shanghai. Shanghai has a sound production environment. Most of suppliers, manufacturers are located nearly in industrial area so that it facilitates communication and assists to reduce transportation costs. (HKTDC ,2002)
As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai as locations of this study is selected. The findings of this study can give an overall understanding of brand loyalty of Chinese customers in cosmetic market. Shanghai may be more representative in contrast other areas, because a huge number of people in Shanghai are from different cites and areas of China. Hence, it ensures respondents of this study have different background.
1.3 Why select facial cream?
For this research I select facial cream among thousands upon thousands cosmetics. The reason is that facial cream is one of the popular cosmetics in China market and also has large market potential. By contrast, cosmetics like shampoo, soap have already reached saturation because growth rate is very slow (HKTDC,2002). According to figure 1, skincare products account for around 35% of cosmetics market share and still are the main stream of cosmetic consumption. At the same time, skincare products are the one with bigger market potential and highest profit in cosmetics market. In the skincare segment, facial care is the largest product category consumed by Chinese customers in China .Facial care includes facial cream, facial cleanser, toners, masks and sun protection. Facial cream can be categorized into moisturizer, whitening cream, anti-ageing cream, nourisher and others depending on its function. Moisturizer and nourisher already constitute nearly 71% of facial care market share (Fukuda, 2004). These cream are sold well in China because of dry weather. On the other hand, the whitening cream in China is supposed to be prevalent due to China’s culture. White skin is one standard characteristic of the Chinese concept of beauty. Chinese proverb say ‘ Yi Bai Zhe San Chou’. It means white can offset three uglity. Skin tone is very important viewed by Chinese. Even though healthy skin is popular all over the way, Chinese people are eager for white skin. (The China observer)
The demand of facial cream is expected stably growing. Purchase rate and usage rate of these are relatively high in contrast with other products. Therefore, target population may easier to be accessed.
The goal of business is to make as much money as possible. Brand loyalty grants a great number of advantages to companies for them to achieve goal. It prevents companies from competition imitation and maintains business stability. On the other side, it gives customers confidence to shop in a complex market. Because customers need not go through decision process to decide which brand should purchase. (Tepeci, 1999). Companies are able to charge higher price to loyal customers to maximize their profitability. Actually loyal customers are less likely to affect by price increase. (Kumar, 2002) Furthermore, companies enable to save funds on promotion and acquisition costs to attract customers. Customers are loyal toward brands will make repeat purchase in the future and make recommendation to their relatives and friends. It provides efficient and effective way for companies to increase their sales. Hence, establishing brand loyalty is the sustainable advantage which will build the constant flow of customers, continuous profits for companies, finally determine success of companies. (Coggins, 2009)
As China’s economy roars ahead, lots of cosmetic companies have entered China cosmetic market in order to seize this attracting market share. One of fundamental reasons is that most of these companies are difficult to increase sales in mature regions such as Western Europe and America. On the contrary, in emerging market, a number of potential customers companies will target. However, in accordance to China market research group (CMR), many marketing executives complain brand loyalty cannot be built among Chinese customers. (Rein, 2007) Importance of brand loyalty should not be ignored. Because it lacks brand loyalty, consumers are readily to switch to competitors’ products. Cosmetic markers realize significance of brand loyalty. When existing customers are not properly retained, new customers must be continuously induced. Hence, companies are supposed to invest huge amounts of advertising, promotion activities, and sales costs to seize new customers. For example, companies have to carry out sale promotion to induce trial and enhance their brand name as well. The expenditure of capturing new customers is approximately six to ten times what spends on retaining current customers. ( Pogol, 2007)
Furthermore, brand loyal customers are less likely to switch to other brands by price allure. Since they consider brand they are loyal towards possess unique value that other brands cannot replace. (Tepeci,1999) Due to meet customers’ need, companies are able to keep price at high among fierce competition. It reduces threat of price wars for companies. In China, companies lack brand loyalty is really in danger. Imitation is very rampant in many industries of China. Cosmetic market is no exception. Imitator usually set quite low price to draw customers.
Moreover, customer spending tends to increase over time. For example, customers who are loyal to facial cream of particular brand are highly likely to try other product lines or new products of the same brand. It provides a solid foundation to companies for new product launch and reduces new product failure risk as well. Thus companies are able to increase sales.
Importance of brand loyalty have already recognized by marketer and researches. A number of studies were conducted in this area. Why don’t cosmetic companies to create customer brand loyalty? Cosmetic companies cannot implement appropriate strategies to contribute brand loyalty. Because cosmetic markers don’t have clear understanding of which factors play important role on affecting brand loyalty in cosmetic market. They didn’t make effort in right areas. Even many researches are about significance of brand loyalty, few of them studies on factors creating brand loyalty. Therefore, cosmetic marketers cannot obtain sufficient information to implement appropriate marketing strategies to build brand loyalty.
Do any factors significantly affect brand loyalty in cosmetic industry?
What is current brand loyalty level in cosmetic industry?
Which cosmetic brand possesses the highest brand loyalty level
The objective of this research is twofold. On one hand, the objective is to investigate main factors affecting brand loyalty in cosmetic market. On the other hand, it identifies current brand loyalty level of cosmetic industry in Shanghai. It can be treated as a benchmark for cosmetic companies to compare their own brand loyalty level with overall brand loyalty level to determine their positions in industry. At the same time, the brand with the highest brand loyalty level is able to be identified.
This study will be a significant endeavor in determine main factors contributing to brand loyalty in cosmetic industry. By understanding major elements affecting brand loyalty, cosmetic companies are able to develop their appropriate strategies to enhance brand loyalty to gain competitive advantages in fierce competition.
This study will also assist cosmetic companies to utilize limited resources to target areas such as marketing; research and development (R&D) where critical affect brand loyalty in cosmetic market.
Moreover, this research will provide directions for cosmetic companies to set down their human resource policies including recruitment, training, reward and promotion. For example, companies implement training programs so that employees are able to serve customer better.
This chapter illustrates an in-depth description of the research methods used to implement this research. In this part, source of data, sampling techniques and research instruments are explained. This chapter is very important because it highlights adopted models and methods utilized to answer the research questions.
There are two main methods available for data collection, the primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary data consisted of data collected by the researcher to ensure validity and reliability. Apart from conducting primary research, this study based its analysis on existing data from professional organizations such as HKTDC as supplements by published materials.This is because these organizations do extensive work in the relevant areas of this research.
This research uses quantitative data in the form of questionnaires. The quantitative data in form of questionnaires consist of close and open ended questions and also questions based on Likert-scales. The questionnaires cover all relevant areas needed for the research such customer demographic, main factors affecting brand loyalty of facial cream. Questionnaire is selected as a quantitative method for collecting data because according to Oppenheim (1972) “Questionnaires are not merely just forms to be filled up, but also are scientific instruments for collecting and measurement of data.”
Developing a research questionnaire is a bottom up process. Beside of questionnaire, a pilot study using interviews is conducted with 40 customers who are shopping in shopping mall. Before they are interviewed, they are asked do they use facial cream. Only users are selected to do interviews. The aim of this pilot study is to develop the questionnaire for this research. According to the respondents, factors influencing brand loyalty of facial cream comprise of product quality, store environment, brand name and service quality. Besides, the nature of service quality dimensions directly relate to the industry under analysis. Information collected shows that salesperson’s professional knowledge, appearance (beauty) and responsiveness are more importance to customers to identify whether the service provided is excellent or not that will affect their brand loyalty toward cosmetics. The information gathered from this pilot study indicates that Olay (P&G), Dabao, Avon , L’Oreal Pond’s(Uniliver) are familiar facial cream brands. Furthermore, they also state brands like Shiseido, L’Oreal, Lancome and Olay (P&G) are famous cosmetic brands. Moreover, respondents state they usually purchase facial cream around two to three month one time based on their own experience. Therefore these data collected are used to address specific research problems in this study.
This refers to data that have been already collected and analyzed by other people. The main purpose of retrieving these data is to find a basis for the research and acknowledge the work of experts who had contributed to the pertinent literature on the subject matter. This study bases its analysis on existing data from professional organizations (e.g. HKTDC) that do extensive work in the areas of China cosmetic industry and brand loyalty in China. It provides information about overall development of China cosmetic market. Furthermore, it identifies which kind of cosmetics is usually used by Chinese customers. Hence, I’m able to select object to conduct this study. Other secondary data sources used are journals, articles, dissertations, newspapers and textbooks. Journal articles 帮助 to identify relevant variables and develop theoretical framework.
A self-administered questionnaire is directly distributed to 200 customers aged from 20 -50 years old. Sample size 200 should be suitable for exploratory study. The questionnaire is originally written in simple Chinese and then translated into English. According to national statistics, customers who are 20-50 years old are the largest group of cosmetic consumption in China. They account for around 76% of cosmetic consumption of whole country. This age group selected lead that sample can be more representative of the population. The surveys are conducted in Henglong shopping mall and Eastern shopping mall where respectively locate in Nanjing road and Xujiahui road that are the most important commercial centers in Shanghai. Because not only people in downtown come to these two shopping mall, but also a great number of people in suburb and country like to shopping in there. Hence customers from different income groups can be accessed. In order to ensure customers from suburb and country can be targeted, surveys are done in Weekend. Compared to Weekday, proportion of customers from suburb and country on Weekend is higher. Because customers have sufficient time to travel to downtown on Weekend. Furthermore, Most of facial cream brands are available in these two shopping centers. Quota sampling (non-probability sampling) is utilized in this study. Gender is chose as control variable. Number of male is 80, others are female. Since female using facial cream is slightly higher than male. Customers who are visually estimated to be 20 to 54 year old are approached and asked to respond to the questions. To further ensure customers with different income level to be targeted, questionnaires are distributed in supermarket, specialty stores and beauty counters in shopping malls. To ensure only customers using facial cream would be respondents of this research, I politely ask them first to identify whether they are the target population. 100 of them are from Henglong shopping mall, others are from Xujiarui shopping mall. Convenience sampling is the less expensive and faster and convenient method. Respondents are accessible, easy to measure and cooperative. The completed questionnaires are used for this research.
Overall, the questionnaire includes three parts. Firstly, the questionnaire deals with demographic variables of respondents. Variables such as age, education are considered. Second part relates to customer brand loyalty of facial cream, the last part is concerning factors affecting brand loyalty. The structure of the questionnaire is clear, easy to understand, and straightforward to ensure that the respondents are able answer the questions with ease.
3.3.1 Brand loyalty
In this research, I use attitudinal measures that are usually based on survey to identify the current brand loyalty level of facial cream in Shanghai. As mentioned above, behavioral measures are more sensitive to short-run fluctuations. The most important limitation of behavioral measures is that they make no distinction between brand loyalty and repeat buying. (Day, 1969). In this questionnaire, brand loyalty is measured on brand preference, switching attitude toward loyal brand and purchase in intention. The open-ended question is used to ask respondents to list out their favorite brands of facial cream. Then five Likert scale question is set down to identify respondents’ degree of preference. Next part questions examine switching attitude toward the loyal brand. Respondents are asked whether they feel comfortable when they switch to other brands. Furthermore, other question is relevant to respondents’ willing to change to other brands. Five-point Likert scale questions are also exercised to indicate respondents’ degree of agreement on each of the statement (1=strongly disagree; 5=strongly agree). Regarding to purchase intention, respondents are asked to state how likely are they purchase favorite brands in future. (1=no chance, 5=certain).
Target how many female and male
Target on customers of different income group
Income based on report (中产阶级)
3.3.2 Factors affecting brand loyalty
Four above mentioned variables (brand name, product quality, store environment and service quality) are measured on a five-point Likert scale using close-ended questions. Two questions are relevant to brand name, four questions are about product quality, three questions are asked about store environment, while three questions relate to service quality. Respondents indicate the level of agreement with the statements that the best describe their feeling toward their favorite brands, ranging from 1= strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree.
3.3.3 Variable scale
Which brand of facial cream do you prefer to use? (State one brand)
What extents do you like given brand?
Five-point Likert scale
I would feel uncomfortable moving to another brand
I would not like to change to another brands
I will continue to purchase given brand in future
Five -point Likter scale
The prestigious brand name and image attract me to purchase from the brand
I will trust famous brand compared to unfamiliar brand
Five-point Likter scale
The brand is located in areas where is convenient for me to visit.
The brand has sufficient outlets
The store environment (temperature, music, space) is comfortable for me to shopping
Five-point Likert scale
The brand has good functional quality
The brand is made of good ingredient
The brand guarantee long-term effect
The brand has high perceived quality
Five-point Likert scale
Salespersons are well-trained and knowledge
Salespersons are willing to 帮助 me
Salesperson’ appearances to some extent represent effect of product.