High Throughput Screening (HTS) Assays: Uses and Formats

The increasing demands placed upon the pharmaceutical industry to produce a rapid turnaround of new drugs is a driving factor in the automation of the processes at the initial screening stage of drug discovery. This has lead to the development of numerous high throughput screening (HTS) assays, with the increasing miniaturization of the whole process … Read More»

Absent Joining Chain Effect on Immune Response

Critical Review of a Journal Kallberg, E. and Leanderson, T., 2006. Joining-chain (J-chain) negative mice are B cell memory deficient. European Journal of Immunology, 36, 1398-1403. Overview The journal article falls under the main subject area of cellular immune response, where the effect of the absence of joining chain locus on T- cell dependent immune … Read More»

Impact of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) on Biology

PCR- How has this technique revolutionised molecular biology in the last 30 years? PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) has been in existence for several decades now and in that time has become one of the most commonly used of all lab techniques in biology. In its simplest form it is a way of enzymatically replicating a … Read More»

ATP and Adenosine: Biochemistry and Metabolism

ATP and adenosine: biochemistry and metabolism Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an endogenously occurring nucleoside triphosphate, which is ubiquitous in all cell types and constitutes the natural precursor molecule of adenosine, (AD) a purine nucleoside formed by adenine and ribose. One ATP molecule consists of three phosphate groups, and is synthetized by several enzymes, namely ATP synthase, from … Read More»

Role Of Bacteria In Assisting Cancer

Cancer can be promoted by several pathogenic bacteria to initiate abnormal cell growth by attacking the immune system or suppressing apoptosis (Mager 2006). However, bacterial toxins can still be used for tumor suppressor and cancer vaccines on immunotoxins of bacterial origin(Patyar et al. 2010). Bacterial colonization of tumors was initially attributed to the hypoxic nature of … Read More»

CD8+ effector and memory T cells Differentiation

What controls CD8+ effector and memory T cells differentiation? Introduction: The capability of initiating and cultivating a population of memory T cells is the key component of an effective adaptive immune response and the fundamental foundation for a productive vaccine since memory cells can trigger an aggressive response upon reinfection. Throughout an infection, T cells … Read More»

Analyzing the Phylum Chordata through Biology

Hamza Ali Introduction: The topic chosen for this biological study was the Kingdom Animalia. This study will specifically be analyzing the Phylum Chordata, by providing an introduction to Chordates, Vertebrates, The Classification method of Cladistics, Fish, Amphibian, and Reptiles. What are vertebrates? -Vertebrates are known as animals that have an internal spine made of bone.Vertebrates … Read More»

Functions of Food and Food Types

Introduction: A look over past decade shows an evident surge of consumer concern towards the health augmenting role of some specific foods which are refer as functional foods. Evidently all foods that we consume are functional in nature as they dispense specific aroma, taste and nutritive value, however during last decade the term has been … Read More»

Screening of Exopolysaccharides Producing Bacteria Strains

1.0 Introduction Among the microbial products, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) play a significant role in main physiological functions and applications. The increased demand for current and natural polymeric materials by several industrial fields such as pharmaceutical, food and others has moved the interest to the polysaccharides produced by microorganism during the past years. Polysaccharide is a macromolecule … Read More»

Blood Protozoan Disease Theileriosis: Causes and Prevalence

The genesis of the problem has been the introduction of the 6 cows from Rajasthan, a hot and dry state of India in the Holstein cross bred herd in the Graphic Era University dairy at Dehradun capital of hill state of India. Suddenly after introduction of these Sindhi cows there was death of death of … Read More»


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